|An evolutionary approach to the automatic generation of 3D building topologies is presented. Genetic programming is used to evolve split grammars, which are a refined kind of shape grammars. The grammars are interpreted by the CityEngine product, which is used for 3D building model generation. Fitness evaluation considers user-specified criteria that evaluate different aspects of the model geometry. Such criteria might include maximizing the number of unique normals, satisfying target height requirements, and conforming to supplied shape contours. Multi-objective evaluation is used to analyze and rank model fitness, based on the varied user-supplied criteria. A number of interesting models complying to given geometric specifications have been successfully evolved with the approach. A motivation for this research application is that it can be used as a generator of conceptual designs, to be used as inspirations for refinement or further exploration.|
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